Bar Long steel products of various cross-sections, produced from steel billets.
Beneficiation The collective term for the initial processing of mineral raw materials to separate all valuable elements from waste rock, as well as the further separation of the valuable elements themselves.
Billet A steel product in various forms, used to produce long products and flat products.
Blast furnace A smelting shaft furnace, used for the production of pig iron from iron ore materials (sintering ore, pellets and crushed ore).
Coke A fuel obtained by the pyrolysis of coking coal in coke ovens and used as a reduction agent for iron ore in the blast furnace.
Coking coal Coal used for coke production.
(Iron ore) concentrate An iron ore raw material produced through the beneficiation of iron ore minerals by removing waste rock.
Continuous casting The process through which smelted steel is continuously poured from the casting ladle to the tundish , and then transferred to the crystalliser in the Continuous Casting Machine, where liquid steel forms into castings of a specific form.
Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) pellets Pellets that have undergone direct reduction. The direct reduction of iron from iron ore or pellets using CO, Н2 and NH3, hard carbon, or these gases and hard carbon together. The process takes place at temperatures of around 1,000°C, in which waste rock does not become slag, impurities (Si, Mn, P, S) are not reduced, and as a result, the metal is purified.
Ferroalloy An alloy comprising iron and other elements, used in steel smelting to achieve the necessary chemical composition for the metal, and to improve its physical characteristics.
Fines / Iron ore fines Small pieces of iron ore that are convenient for transportation. In the majority of cases, it is necessary to sinter iron ore fines before loading them into the blast furnace, to reduce losses of the raw material and increase the furnace's productivity. Fines are the most in-demand form of iron ore. The quality of iron ore can vary significantly.
Flat products Rectangular steel products, created by rolling billets in a sheet rolling facility. The main categories of flat products are: (1) thin rolled products (width of up to 4 mm); (2) heavy plate (width from 4-50 mm) and (3) plates (with a width of over 50 mm).
Flux A material used in steel smelting to form slag and regulate its chemical composition, in order to remove unwanted impurities from steel.
Hematite A widely used iron mineral with the chemical formula Fe2O3. One of the main types of iron ore, and has a primarily reddish colouring.
Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) Metallised pellets (Direct Reduced Iron) formed into briquettes with an iron content of over 90% and a density of over 5.0 g/ cm in temperatures of over 700 С°. HBI is used as an additive to scrap in the production of high-quality steel, primarily in electric furnaces.
Integrated metallurgical process Includes all stages of the steelmaking process, from processing iron ore and coking coal, to making finished steel products.
Long products A product produced in rolling mills with hot and cold rolling. Long products are used in all industrial sectors, particularly in the construction and mechanical engineering industries. This includes all types of bars, wire rod and a wide range of cold-formed profiles like closed profile, S-shape profile, E-shape profile, trough-shape profile, angle profile and others. This also includes pipes with circular, oblong and semi-oblong, square and rectangular cross sections, in a wide range of sizes.
Lump Unprocessed/un-beneficiated, naturally occurring iron ore pellets which are between 6-40 mm in size.
Magnetite A ferromagnetic mineral with the chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides, primarily of a black colour. It is widely distributed and forms large accumulations and ore deposits. It has strong magnetic properties.
Metallic charge A mixture of original materials, processed in steelmaking facilities to make finished products with the required chemical composition.
Open-pit mining A method of extracting mineral resources from the earth's surface using open mining production facilities.
Overburden The rock covering iron ore deposits. Overburden waste rock is transferred to the dumps, but can be used for restoring the original appearance of the extraction site. With the appropriate physical and mechanical properties, overburden can be suitable for the production of raw mineral materials (crushed stone, clay, sands, chalk). The stripping process to ensure the extraction of ore is called overburden removal.
Pellets A product made from iron ore concentrate and used as a raw material for pig iron and HBI/DRI production. Fine-grained concentrate or naturally occurring hematite fines are sintered by mixing with bentonite or other binding materials. Then they are sintered by heating. Pellets have a diameter of 8-20 mm.
Pig iron The product of re-melting iron-containing raw materials in a blast furnace used during the steelmaking and foundry production process. Pig iron has a carbon content of over 2.14%, which makes it brittle and limits its use as a finished product.
Rolling mill A facility of technological equipment used in the major deformation of metal in rolls.
SBQ A rolled steel product with improved physical characteristics, used for the production of heavy-load bearing components for the automobile industry, mechanical engineering, ship building, the aviation industry and other sectors.
Scrap A secondary raw material, used for steel production. Scrap can be used in charge, along with pig iron and HBI.
Sintering ore Fine ore (often powdered) coagulated into pieces with a small fines content at high temperatures. In metalworking, it is a fundamental iron ore material for the production of pig iron in the blast furnace.
Slag A by-product containing inert materials obtained during blast-furnace smelting and other steelmaking operations. Slag serves to protect molten metal from air and remove certain impurities.
Strip Flat steel products in the form of bands.
Vacuum degasser A facility for the removal of solution gases from liquid steel under low pressure (in a vacuum) for the production of high-quality steel with low carbon content.